An essential coenzyme for a many carboxylation reactions
Involved in the metabolism of fats, sugar and amino acids
As an essential part of important enzymes and is necessary for both maintenance and growth.
Keeps hair from turning gray and falling out, alleviates eczema and dermatitis, eases muscle pains. Water soluble. It functions as a coenzyme in bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation reactions. Biotin aids in the utilization of protein, folic acid, Pantothenic acid, and Vitamin B-12, promotes healthy hair.
Involved in the metabolism of fats, sugar and amino acids it aids the utilization of glucose for energy, the breakdown and utilization of fatty acids in energy production, and the removal of the amine group in amino acid metabolism, thereby assisting amino acids in being synthesized into protein as well as the formation of DNA and RNA.
Aids in the utilization of other B-complex vitamins. It helps in cell growth, fatty acid production, and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Biotin helps keep sweat glands, nerve tissue, and bone marrow healthy. promotes healthy hair. Deficiencies in Biotin may result in alopecia (hair loss), anemia anorexia, nausea, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hyperglycemia (diabetes), insomnia, muscle pain, muscle weakness, dry grayish skin (pale), smooth tongue.
An adequate amount of Biotin is needed for healthy hair and skin. Prevent hair loss in men. Biotin helps relieve muscle pain, alleviate depression, and reduces the effects of dermatitis. It is involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, gluconeogenesis, energy production, the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine) and the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. Research indicates that biotin plays a role in gene expression, both at the transcriptional and translational levels, and that it may also play a role in DNA replication.
In an animal model, mice with non-insulin dependent diabetes were treated with biotin, which decreased post-prandial glucose levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. These benefits may be related to the activity of glucokinase, which is an enzyme that plays an important role in regulating a variety of glucose-related metabolic processes. Biotin reportedly stimulates glucokinase enzyme activity.
In a Japanese study, the administered 3 mg of biotin three times daily to patients with type 2 diabetes provided a significant lowering of fasting glucose levels without any adverse side effects. It appears that biotin may be a safe nutritional product to aid in the management of type 2 diabetes.
Biotin, a 244 dalton vitamin found in tissue and blood, binds with high affinity to both avidin and streptavidin. Biotin is a relatively small molecule, so it can usually be conjugated to many proteins without significantly altering the biological activity of the protein. A protein can be reacted with several molecules of biotin that, in turn, can each bind a molecule of avidin.
Hofmann, K., Wood, S.W., Brinton, C.C., Montibeller, J.A. and Finn, F.M. (1980). Iminobiotin affinity columns and their application to retrieval of streptavidin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77(8), 4666-4668.
Green, N.M., Konieczny, L., Toms, E.J. and Valentine, R.C. (1971). The use of bifunctional biotinyl compounds to determine the arrangement of sub-units in avidin. Biochem. J. 125, 781-984.
After biotin’s initial discovery in 1927 (Boas, 1927), it took nearly 40 years of research for it to be fully recognized as a vitamin. In mammals this colorless, water-soluble vitamin functions as a cofactor for enzymes that catalyze carboxylation retentions (Dakshinamurti, 1994). As early as 1940, it was researched for its effectiveness in promoting healthy hair and nails.
Biotin is synthesized by intestinal flora.
Found in Brewer’s yeast, cooked egg yolks, meat, milk, poultry, saltwater fish, soybeans, whole grains, Liver, kidney, soy flour, cereal, Royal jelly, and yeast
Antibiotic use may decrease the biotin contribution to the body made by the microflora of the large intestine. High-doses of pantothenic acid may inhibit the absorption of biotin produced by the microflora in the large intestine.
Biotin aids in the utilization of protein, folic acid, Pantothenic acid, and Vitamin B-12.
Deficiencies Caused by:
Raw eggs have a protein that when combined with Biotin, can deplete the body of nutrients.
Fats and oils subjected to heat or exposed to the air inhibit Biotin absorption.
Antibiotics, sulfa drugs, and saccharin nay reduce its effectiveness.
Antibiotics may adversely affect the intestinal flora and contribute to biotin scarcity.
Deficiency Signs or Symptoms:
Deficiencies in Biotin may result in scaly dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, or cradle cap, found on infants, and characterized by dry, scaly scalp. In adults, a Biotin deficiency is rare; symptoms include depression, high blood sugar, inflammation or pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, soreness of the tongue, alopecia (hair loss), anemia anorexia, nausea, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hyperglycemia (diabetes), insomnia, muscular pain, muscle pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, dry grayish skin, pale skin, smooth tongue.
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